You’ve no doubt heard of it and probably even said it, but what if I told you muscles have no memory centers?
The guide is very long, but you don’t have to read it all to understand the topic.
Most of it is quotes, which are informational texts based on studies.
For one or the other, this may seem a lot, but if you are going to cover the topic, then do it properly.
A few quotes are also just blog or article entries, these were mostly used for rhetoric.
Definition by Google
- The ability to reproduce a particular movement without conscious thought, acquired as a result of frequent repetition of that movement
Example: “typing relies heavily on muscle memory”
Definition by Cambridge Dictionary
- The ability to move a part of your body without thinking about it, learned by repeating the movement many times
If you’ve practised enough, muscle memory should take over the physical aspect of the motions
Muscle memory on Wikipedia
This article is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. (February 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Yes, you just read that right, the Wikipedia entry which has the name “Muscle memory” is a
personal reflection, personal essay.
Why? Because it is not based on studies like other Wikipedia entries. All sources given below point to articles and blogs but not to studies.
Which is why the entry should be treated with caution.
The Dark truth?
The term “Muscle Memory” implies that if we were to perform an exercise repeatedly over and over, your muscles will remember, supposedly making it easier to perform the more you do it. Technically this is true, but not for this reason. The problem with implied muscle memory is that your muscles do not have the capacity to create or recollect memories.
Unlike octopuses, we don’t have brains in our limbs. So we can’t really “remember” anything in our arms and legs. But it’s true that once you learn how to do something physical—whether it be riding a bike or deadlifting—it becomes easier and easier to do it without thinking. It sure feels like your body remembers how to do it.
'Muscle Memory' May Not Really Exist
What is “Muscle Memory”
muscle memory Procedural memory is in the brain and the nervous system, not in any muscles.Memories come from the brain. Consistently doing repetitive movements each day over a long period of time will create a brain to body memory formation. So-called
Definition by Wikipedia
Procedural memory is a type of implicit memory (unconscious, long-term memory) which aids the performance of particular types of tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
Fitts (1954) model
Attention at this point in the process is significant for the acquisition of skill. This process involves breaking down the desired skill to be learned into parts and understanding how these parts come together as a whole for the correct performance of the task. The way an individual organizes these parts is known as schemas. Schemas are important in directing the acquisition process and the way an individual comes to choose schemas is described by metacognition.
The associative phase of the Fitts (1954) model involves individuals repeated practice until patterns of responding emerge. At this part in the model, actions of the skill become learned (or automated) as ineffective actions are dropped. An individual's sensory system acquires the accurate spatial and symbolic data required for the completion of the skill. The ability to differentiate important from unimportant stimuli is crucial at this stage of the model. It is held that the greater the amount of important stimuli associated with a task, the longer it will take to complete this phase of the model.
This is the final phase in Fitts' (1954) model, and it involves perfecting skill acquisition. The ability to discriminate important from unimportant stimuli are made quicker and less thought process is required because the skill has become automated. Important to this phase of the model is experience and factual knowledge store for the observed skill.
Tadlock (2005) model
The predictive cycle
The model is significantly different from Fitts' 1954 view in that it does not require conscious understanding of a skill's components. Rather, the learner is only required to maintain in conscious awareness a concept of the desired result. Tadlock has applied the view successfully to reading remediation (Scott et al., 2010). The stages involved include:
- Implicitly analyze the result
- Implicitly decide how to change the next attempt so that success is achieved
Pursuit rotor task
A device used to study visual-motor tracking skills and hand–eye coordination by requiring the participant to follow a moving object with a cursor or use a stylus to follow the target on a computer screen or a turntable.With the computer screen version, the participant follows a dot on a circular path like the one shown below.
The pursuit rotor task is a simple pure visual-motor tracking test that has consistent results within age groups. This displays a measurement of procedural memory as well as demonstrates the participant's fine motor skills. The pursuit rotor task tests the fine-motor skills which are controlled by the motor cortex illustrated by the green section below.
The results are then calculated by the participant's time-on and time-off the object. Amnesic participants show no impairment in this motor task when tested at later trials. It does however seem to be affected by lack of sleep and drug use.
Serial reaction time task
This task involves having participants retain and learn procedural skills that assess specific memory for procedural-motor skill. These skills are measured by observing the speed and accuracy of the participant's ability to retain and acquire new skills. The reaction time is the time it takes for the participant to respond to the designated cue presented to them. Participants with Alzheimer's disease and amnesia demonstrate a long retention time which indicates that they are able to retain the skill and demonstrate effective performance of the task at a later point in time.
Mirror tracing task
This task looks at the integration of the senses more specifically as it is a visual motor test where the participants learn a new motor skill involving hand–eye coordination. Evidence is shown for procedural memory as amnesic participants are able to learn and retain this task. Drawing the image is the work of your procedural memory; once you figure out how to draw the image in the mirror you have little difficulty the second time. Individuals with Alzheimer's disease are not able to recall the skills acquired in a mirror tracing task, but they acquire the procedural performance ability regardless.
Weather prediction task
Specifically, this task uses experimental analysis of weather prediction. As a probability learning task, the participant is required to indicate what strategy they are using to solve the task. It is a cognitively-oriented task that is learned in a procedural manner. It's designed using multidimensional stimuli, so participants are given a set of cards with shapes and then asked to predict the outcome. After the prediction is made participants receive feedback and make a classification based on that feedback. For example, the participant can be shown one pattern and then asked to predict whether the pattern indicates good or bad weather. The actual weather outcome will be determined by a probabilistic rule based on each individual card. Amnesic participants learn this task in training but are impaired in later training control.
Choice reaction task
Choice reaction tasks have been used to assess working memory. It has been determined to be useful in gauging procedural working memory by asking participants to follow stimulus-reaction rules.
I’m just better
Genetic makeup has been found to impact skill learning and performance, and therefore plays a role in achieving expertise. Using the pursuit rotor task, one study examined the effects of practice in identical and fraternal twins raised in separate homes. Because identical twins share 100% of their genes while fraternal twins share 50%, the impact of genetic makeup on skill learning could be examined. The results of the pursuit rotor task test became more identical with practice over time for the identical twins, whereas the results for the fraternal twins became more disparate with practice. In other words, the performance of the skill by the identical twins became closer to 100% identical, while the fraternal twins' skill performance became less identical, suggesting the 50% difference in genetic makeup is responsible for the difference in skill performance. The study shows that more practice leads to a closer representation of a person's innate capability, also known as talent. Therefore, some of the differences people show after extended practice increasingly reflects their genetics. The study also confirmed the idea that practice improves skill learning by showing that, in both the identical and fraternal groups, more practice aided in shedding ineffective tendencies in order to improve execution of a given skill. Currently, the link between learning and genetics has been limited to simple task learning, while a link to more complex forms of learning, such as the learning of cognitive skills, has not been confirmed.
life isn’t fair 🙁
The Human Reference Atlas (HRA) aims to map all of the cells of the human body to advance biomedical research and clinical practice. This Perspective presents collaborative work by members of 16 international consortia on two essential and interlinked parts of the HRA: (1) three-dimensional representations of anatomy that are linked to (2) tables that name and interlink major anatomical structures, cell types, plus biomarkers (ASCT+B). We discuss four examples that demonstrate the practical utility of the HRA.
Striatum and basal ganglia
The dorsolateral striatum is associated with the acquisition of habits and is the main neuronal cell nucleus linked to procedural memory. Connecting excitatory afferent nerve fibers help in the regulation of activity in the basal ganglia circuit. Essentially, two parallel information processing pathways diverge from the striatum. Both acting in opposition to each other in the control of movement, they allow for association with other needed functional structures One pathway is direct while the other is indirect and all pathways work together to allow for a functional neural feedback loop. Many looping circuits connect back at the striatum from other areas of the brain; including those from the emotion-center linked limbic cortex, the reward-center linked ventral striatum and other important motor regions related to movement. The main looping circuit involved in the motor skill part of procedural memory is usually called the cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex loop.
The striatum is unique because it lacks the glutamate-related neurons found throughout most of the brain. Instead, it is categorized by a high concentration of a special type of GABA related inhibiting cell known as the medium spiny neuron. The two parallel pathways previously mentioned travel to and from the striatum and are made up of these same special medium spiny neurons. These neurons are all sensitive to different neurotransmitters and contain a variety of corresponding receptors including dopamine receptors (DRD1, DRD2), muscarinic receptors (M4) and adenosine receptors (A2A). Separate interneurons are known to communicate with striatal spiny neurons in the presence of the somatic nervous system neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Current understanding of brain anatomy and physiology suggests that striatal neural plasticity is what allows basal ganglia circuits to communicate between structures and to functionally operate in procedural memory processing.
The cerebellum is known to play a part in correcting movement and in fine-tuning the motor agility found in procedural skills such as painting, instrument playing and in sports such as golf. Damage to this area may prevent the proper relearning of motor skills and through associated research it has more recently been linked to having a role in automating the unconscious process used when learning a procedural skill. New thoughts in the scientific community suggest that the cerebellar cortex holds the holy grail of memory, what is known to researchers as "the engram" or the biological place where memory lives. The initial memory trace is thought to form here between parallel fibers and Purkinje cell and then travel outwards to other cerebellar nuclei for consolidation.
The limbic system is a group of unique brain areas that work together in many interrelated processes involved in emotion, motivation, learning and memory. Current thinking indicates that the limbic system shares anatomy with a component of the neostriatum already credited with the major task of controlling procedural memory. Once thought to be functionally separate, this vital section of the brain found on the striatum's back border has only recently been linked to memory and is now being called the marginal division zone (MrD). A special membrane protein associated with the limbic system is said to concentrate in related structures and to travel towards the basal nuclei. To put things simply, the activation of brain regions that work together during procedural memory can be followed because of this limbic system associated membrane protein and its application in molecular and immunohistochemistry research.
Physiology – Procedural memory
Dopamine is one of the more known neuromodulators involved in procedural memory. Evidence suggests that it may influence neural plasticity in memory systems by adapting brain processing when the environment is changing and an individual is then forced to make a behavioural choice or series of rapid decisions. It is very important in the process of "adaptive navigation", which serves to help different brain areas respond together during a new situation that has many unknown stimuli and features. Dopamine pathways are dispersed all over the brain and this allows for parallel processing in many structures all at the same time. Currently most research points to the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway as the system most related to reward learning and psychological conditioning.
At the synapse
Recent findings could help explain the relationship between procedural memory, learning and synaptic plasticity at the level of the molecule. One study used small animals lacking normal levels of CREB family transcription factors to look at the processing of information in the striatum during various tasks. Although poorly understood, results show that CREB function is needed at the synapse for linking the acquisition and storage of procedural memory.
Procedural memory 2.0
Even more about Procedural memory
- Alzheimer’s disease and dementia
- Tourette syndrome
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
- Huntington’s disease
- Obsessive compulsive disorder
- Parkinson’s disease
Result and more
Procedural memory in a nutshell: “Is the storing or learning of things, which is then stored in the brain.”
Muscel memory has actually been a hypothesis from the body memory. But since many people understood Muscel Memory as Procedural memory, the term became more and more common. But many people implement something wrong from it. For example, many people associate muscle training – aim training with Muscel Memory, which is then not Procedural memory, but Body memory.
Body memory (BM) is a hypothesis that the body itself is capable of storing memories, as opposed to only the brain. While experiments have demonstrated the possibility of cellular memory there are currently no known means by which tissues other than the brain would be capable of storing memories.
Other points connected with Procedural memory
- Implicit memory
- Schema (psychology)
- Implicit memory
- Power law of practice
- synaptic plasticity
- Dreyfus model of skill acquisition
- neuroscience of body memory
- Procedural knowledge
- Sleep and memory
- Working memory
- Dreyfus model of skill acquisition
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